Passé Composé vs Imparfait


The difficulty in French with the past tenses is they do not match any English past tenses, so how to know which tense is correct?

Have a look at this video and go to frenchspanishonline.com/beginnersfrench/school/hier/imppcquiz/index.html for QUIZ on line.

Clarification: Some readers of this website wrote to me about the correct translation of the verb “to visit” in French: please see at the end of this article.

Passé Composé vs Imparfait

Imparfait: this tense is for past actions or states expressing a length or a repetition which beginning and end are not known (also used for narration).

Here is a good representation of what the imparfait is (the orange arrow):

The imparfait is the answer to the question: what was going on?

The big blue arrow is for the passé composé:

Passé Composé: for actions or states limited in the past, the beginning, then end, the length are known. For this reason it is the answer to the question: what happened?


Even is the length is 24 hours, 1 week or 1 year, because you know the length, you use the passé composé.

So, now, let’s take some examples:



let’s draw this sentence using our arrows: “when I was young I used to visit my Grandma”,
we have two parts “when I was young” and “I used to visit my Grandma“.
When I was young represents a period of time which beginning and end are not important and not very clear, so we are going to use our orange arrow for the imparfait.
I used to visit my Grandma, again it is a repeating action in the past but we don’t know how many times, there is no time indicators (like 1 day, 1 month, several times…), because the most important thing is not how many time, but the fact that I visited my Grandma, so we are going to use the imparfait again.

Here is the drawing of our sentence:

The green arrow is included in the orange one, of course because it occurred when I was young, this repeated action needs the imparfait in French because what is important here, it is not the time, it is the fact that I visited my Grandma.

So, the translation in French is: Quand j’étais jeune, je rendais visite à ma grand-mère (ou je visitais ma grand-mère)!

Let’s have a look at the new sentence: “when I was young I visited my Grandma several times
You could say that it is a repeated action in the past, that’s right, but here we have an indicator of times, we know that it was “several times” and not a real habit, for this reason, we are not going to use the imparfait here, but the passé composé.

Let’s draw our sentence:

As, you can see, the best way to draw the second part of the sentence is using blue arrows, again, because of the time indicator: “several times”.

So, the translation in French is: Quand j’étais jeune, j’ai rendu visite à ma grand-mère plusieurs fois!

Another sentence, but now, I am sure you can translate it with no help:
I was at the supermarket when I saw my friend
You understand that for the first part “I was at the supermarket“, it is a state in the past, the beginning and the end are not known, so we need… the imparfait of course. “When I saw my friend“, you understand too, this is a very short period of time, it did not last a long while, so, we need… the passé composé and here is the drawing:



Of course, you will see some subtleties, the imparfait tense is also used in French when we narrate a long story, but for the moment, have a look to the video to see more examples and refresh what you have just read, then the Quiz is waiting for you: frenchspanishonline.com/beginnersfrench/school/hier/imppcquiz/index.html

Let’s have a look at this sentence:
When Peter was young, he lived with his parents.
What tenses will you use in French?
For the first part, there is no problem, the imparfait but actually the translation of the second one depends on the meaning.
If you wan t to say that Peter spent all his times with his parents: the imparfait: Quand Peter était jeune, il vivait chez ses parents.
If you want to say that he was with his parents and emphasize this point: passé composé: Quand Peter était jeune, il a vécu chez ses parents.
(I noticed that some websites do not take into consideration this difference and force you to choose one tense when both are possible depending on the meaning)

To visit in French:

Some readers of this website wrote to me about the correct translation of the verb “to visit” in French stating that “visiter quelqu’un” is not correct and should be said “rendre visite à quelqu’un”.  As I already wrote, both are correct!
According to a common tendency, some French people prefer to say “rendre visite” to someone and “visiter” something, making a difference between people and things, it is correct and can be used but “visiter” someone is also perfectly correct and this is the expression used in the video.
“Visiter” comes from the Latin verb to see and can be used like it, for this reason you can find in all French – French dictionaries that “visiter quelqu’un” or someone is correct: “Visiter des amis, des parents, sa famille; visiter qqn fréquemment, rarement, régulièrement.” TLF
I suggest to advanced learners and French speakers to have a look at the excellent tool on line “le Trésor de la Langue française” about this verb.
There is another way to say it with the expression: aller voir quelqu’un.

Quiz Imparfait / Passé Composé

Choose the correct tense between the imparfait and the passé composé. You are going to see that sometimes the meaning of the sentence can change the tenses and it can be subtle, I noticed in many websites wrong exercises focusing on one answer when several are sometimes possible, so pay attention to the explanation you will find here.

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24 thoughts on “Passé Composé vs Imparfait

  1. Aleksandar

    It’s a very good and effective explanation of the difference between passe compose and imparfait.Especially the example with the timline arrows
    I’m doing a test tomorrow,so…it helped me a lot!
    Tnx :D:D:D

  2. Rudy

    Very usefull! Especially the arrows in the timeline.
    After seeing the video, I made the quiz, and had a 100% score.
    Thanks a lot

  3. Stella Shade

    Excellent lesson.  Wonderful teaching method, simple clear.
    Outstanding!  We are grateful for all the time and talent that has been expended to provide this class. 
    Thank you so much!

  4. Bebel

    This is a truly wonderful and simple way of teaching — and of learning. I’m a A1 level French student and have not learned past tenses yet… But after watching this, guess I won’t have to wait for that lesson! 
    But I must say, as a native Portuguese speaker, it is much easier for me to understand the French past tenses than the English speakers, for in Portuguese they work in the exact same way and even have the same name (pretérito perfeiro, imperfeito e mais-que-perfeito). So I have a slight advantage when it comes to using French past tenses.
    And the video and the graphic are simply awesome, congratulations on the great job!

  5. Javad

    thank you very much for your comprehensive explanation over the difference between these two tenses,now I believe learning french is not as difficult as I used to think.

  6. AISHU

    Hey
    This video was truly amazing …but i still have one doubt for clarification .

    I Want to know…that when in a fill in the blank sentence they had given 2 blanks and 2 verbs in brackets how do we know where to use imparfait and where to use passe compose ?

    THANKYOU !! :)

  7. haggy

    u should not use a clip because some people have to donwload the software u should explain this process by words and give a test to see ur knowlege and undertsanding this process. Always explain it in simple ways so everybody can get to kno what it mean. But when i saw the clip it was wonderful and i think iam going to pass my test :D

    thank you

  8. Reem

    I was so confused mais now I DONT fully understand but I do know how to differentait between them. Thank you again I think I need extra practice :)

  9. Belle

    Tres bien – je le compris mieux maintenant. J’aurais un examen demain, et tu l’aides beaucoup!

  10. sarahj01

    this was so helpful!! great video, thanks! 
    (i also have a test tmrw and this clarified so much!)

    -sarah j.

  11. Ella

    This is awesome, thanks..  I have a test tuesday and i’m still confused but this video and quiz helped a lot!   Thanks so much!!

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